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[145] 5 januari 2021: Is There Such a Thing as a Hate Crime Paradigm? An Integrative Review of Bias-Motivated Violent Victimization and Offending, Its Effects and Underlying Mechanisms

Inleiding en context

Dinsdagochtend 5 januari 2021, het blijft nog even wennen om het juiste jaartal te gebruiken. Vanochtend een overzichtsartikel over zogenaamde ´haatmisdrijven´ , hierbij is veelal sprake van door vooringenomenheid gemotiveerd geweld. Er bestaan nogal wat verschillen in definitie en reikwijdte die aan het begrip van haatmisdrijven wordt gegeven. Om meed duidelijkheid te verkrijgen worden in bijgesloten overzichtsartikel 134 academische publicaties uit verschillende disciplines systematisch beschreven. Het gaat dan om wetenschapsdisciplines zoals persoonlijkheids- en sociale psychologie, klinische psychologie, sociologie, criminologie en aanverwante disciplines. Het blijkt dat sprake is van in feite een uniek fenomeen vanwege de achtergronden die geworteld zijn in vooroordelen, identiteit en attitudes waarin het snijvlak van individuele, psychosociale en ecologische factoren in het bijzonder een rol spelen.

Ook in Nederlandis steeds meer aandacht voor haatuitingen zowel in geschrift als gesproken woord. Eerder verstuurde ik rond het onderwerp de bijdrage ´Hate speech and hate crime in the EU and the evaluation of online content regulation approaches´: https://prohic.nl/2020/11/02/2-november-2020-hate-speech-and-hate-crime-in-the-eu-and-the-evaluation-of-online-content-regulation-approaches/ Kortom, genoeg kennis om van te leren, te interpreteren en te implementeren.

Bron

Dias-Faez, Diego A. & Noemi Pereda (December 2020). Is There Such a Thing as a Hate Crime Paradigm? An Integrative Review of Bias-Motivated Violent Victimization and Offending, Its Effects and Underlying Mechanisms. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 24 December, pp. 1-15. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1524838020979694

Samenvatting

Despite the growing number of bias-motivated violence studies, the evidence available remains limited, and there are several gaps in our understanding of the complex relationship between negative attitudes and biased violence. In addition, the literature on this topic has many facets and nuances and is often contradictory, so it is difficult to obtain a clear overall picture. Research has made good progress in this area, but it still suffers from a lack of systematization and from a highly segmented approach to victimization and offending. To contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the subject, this integrative narrative review provides a critical reappraisal of the theoretical, methodological, and empirical research from a systemic perspective. To this end, 134 academic publications on personality and social psychology, clinical psychology, sociology, criminology, and related disciplines were examined. The evidence suggests that although bias-motivated violence shares characteristics with other types of offensive behavior, it is actually a unique phenomenon due to its background rooted in prejudice, identity, and attitudes in which the intersection of individual, psychosocial, and ecological factors is especially relevant. The impact on the victim and their community is diverse, but it has a series of distinctive severe psychological consequences that significantly reduce the probability that incidents will be reported. Here, we present a series of findings and reflections on bias-motivated violence and provide recommendations for research, practice, and policy.

Key Findings of the Review

  • Despite the proliferation of hate laws and policies that, a priori, support the view that society is increasingly open and welcoming, victimization rates do not seem to have decreased and a significant number of unreported bias-motivated crimes persist.
  • Bias-motivated violence shares characteristics with other types of offensive behaviors.
  • Cultural influence is more relevant for bias-motivated violence than economic threat.
  • In general, intergroup contact has positive effects on intergroup attitudes.
  • Bias victimization experiences are related to negative physical, behavioral and mental health outcomes.
  • Bias-motivated violence has heterogeneous and distinctive psychological consequences for the victims.
  • Access to stress-relieving mechanisms mediates the relationship between identification with the stigmatized group and the psychological well-being of the victim.
  • Bias-motivated violence across minority groups or even by minority groups against majority groups is largely left unexplored.
  • Population alone does not seem to explain the presence of hate groups.
  • Multiculturalism interventions could reduce intergroup ethnic prejudice.

Implications of the Review for Practice, Policy, and Research

  • Research and policies need to adopt an intersectional perspective that should guide practice.
  • Bias-motivated violence needs more ecological research to determine the influence of the cultural and environment context.
  • More research is needed on intergroup and gender differences between minority victims, including possible distinctions within subgroups.
  • The typical categorization of hate crimes often ignores multiple motivations and is inaccurate when prejudice or bias is not the main motivational element. Likewise, this implies persistent problems in distinguishing the categories because they are not mutually exclusive.
  • Markers such as non-White or another race/ethnicity/ancestry should not be used in research because they usually combine qualitatively very different groups. This kind of heterogenic group label is based only on the fact that some participants do not conform to an independent group in quantitative terms, so they are placed in a generic one. In this way, the specific characteristics of each group are hidden within one generic group.
  • The victim–offender overlap is mostly unexplored in bias-motivated violence. Given its potential for helping to develop a more integrated and comprehensive understanding of this type of violence, it should be considered seriously in future research.

Afsluitend

Mensen die het slachtoffer worden van gewelddadige haatmisdrijven hebben meer kans op psychische nood dan slachtoffers van andere geweldsmisdrijven. Specifiek: slachtoffers van misdrijven door vooringenomenheid gemotiveerd geweld hebben meer kans op posttraumatische stress, bezorgdheid over de eigen veiligheid, depressie, angst en woede dan slachtoffers van geweldsmisdrijven die niet worden ingegeven door vooringenomenheid. Haatmisdrijven zijn een extreme vorm van vooroordelen, die in omvang toenemen binnen de huidige context van sociale en politieke veranderingen: COVID-19 maakt angstig. In de publieke en politieke discussie worden leden van onbekende of minderheidsgroepen in feite als minderwaardig weggezet. Daders van haatmisdrijven hebben vaak het gevoel dat hun levensonderhoud of manier van leven wordt bedreigd door demografische veranderingen. Daders worden vaak niet zozeer gemotiveerd door haat, maar eerder door angst, onwetendheid of woede. Psychologisch onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat vooroordelen, stereotypering en discriminatie nadelige effecten kunnen hebben op zowel de slachtoffers als de daders zelf. Alle zeilen bij dus om de omvang en ernst van dit fenomeen te voorkomen. Bijgesloten overzichtsartikel geeft daar prima suggesties voor.