Categories
A pearl of knowledge

[188] 23 March 2021: Risico-, versterkende en beschermende factoren voor crimineel gedrag: Een literatuuronderzoek naar de wetenschappelijke stand van zaken

Inleiding en context

Het is dinsdagochtend 23 maart 2021. Vandaag als ´kennisparel´ een overzicht van de huidige stand van zaken in de wetenschap rond zogenaamde risico-, versterkend en beschermende factoren voor crimineel gedrag. De auteurs hebben in opdracht van de gemeente Rotterdam dit overzicht gemaakt. Dat is natuurlijk een hele klus omdat de accumulatie van kennis op deze onderscheiden terreinen de laatste jaren bijzonder is toegenomen. Het is een bijna onmogelijke taak om door al deze ´kennisbomen´ het bos nog te zien. Toch hebben de auteurs van bijgesloten ´kennisparel´ een goede poging ondernomen en zijn ze in staat geweest om ondanks deze bijna onoverzichtelijke hoeveelheid kennis orde te scheppen in deze materie. Voor iedereen die zich bezig houdt met (potentiële) daders en daderschap in alle soorten en maten is bijgesloten rapport een mooi overzicht om kennis van te nemen.

Bron

Servaas, Lotte M., Frank M. Weerman & Tamar F.C. Fischer (maart 2021).  Risico-, versterkende en beschermende factoren voor crimineel gedrag: Een literatuuronderzoek naar de wetenschappelijke stand van zaken. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, Sectie Criminologie, 99 pp. https://repub.eur.nl/pub/135248

Summary

Criminal behaviour is a complex phenomenon, with various manifestations (such as nuisance, juvenile delinquency, cyber crimes, organized crime) and influences from different domains (such as the individual, his immediate environment and society). The question of which factors are important for which perpetrator is a very complex one and answers are seldom simple or unambiguous. In this report, we report a global investigation into the scientific state of affairs on the most important factors that increase or decrease the risk of various criminal behaviour forms. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review of existing overview studies in this field and summarized the results in clear tables. In this first chapter, we discuss the reason for this research, present the research questions, and reflect on the significance of the investigated factors.

This study was carried out in response to a request from the City of Rotterdam to provide an overview of the existing knowledge about the most relevant criminal behaviour factors for different age categories and different forms of crime. The background to this is the Municipality of Rotterdam’s aim to use as much knowledge as possible from science and practice when formulating policy. Several years ago, this was explicitly worked out for youth policy in the form of a factor model incorporated in the so-called Youth Policy Framework, “Rotterdam Groeit”. This concerned a plan that was aimed at “more promising, safer and healthier growing up of children and young people in the city.” With this, the municipality tried, among other things, to provide answers to the decentralization and transformation of youth care, which was started around 2015. By involving science in youth policy, the municipality wanted to lay a better and more rational foundation for making choices concerning prevention and intervention, such as school dropout, crime, and mental illness in children and young people. Also, the municipality hoped to identify new points for attention for policy.

The factor model was developed in collaboration with scientists, including from the Netherlands Youth Institute. In the model, five domains, referred to as ‘settings’, were distinguished: (1) the parents, (2) the child itself, (3) the playgroup, childcare and school, (4) the wider environment of the street, district, city and (5) the digital world. Within these domains, various factors have been identified that can create risks or have a positive or protective effect for the policy plan’s three central goals: developing talent, growing up safely and promoting the health of children and young people. When classifying the various factors, a distinction was also made as far as possible according to the age periods in which those factors are important, such as pregnancy, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood.

The municipality of Rotterdam now wants to expand the factor model for youth to a factor model for all ages. The aim is to provide insight into which factors contribute to a promising, safe and healthy life for children and young people and adults and the elderly. This allows the municipality to make substantiated choices about the new policy and the use of resources. The municipality hopes that the further expanded factor model can help integrate different policy areas and take measures that transcend individual themes. Scientists from various disciplines have been asked to contribute to this new and more extensive factor model.

In order to gain an overview of the extensive research into factors associated with different forms of criminal behavior, we conducted a systematic literature review of existing studies in which several studies are summarized and

synthesized (systematic review studies and meta-analyses). Where possible, we have made a distinction between risk factors and reinforcing or protective factors to be in line with the existing factor model for youth and the intended extension to older age groups. Following the distinction between different “settings” and age groups in the earlier policy documents of the municipality of Rotterdam, we have divided the factors found from our literature study into different main domains and life stages as much as possible.

The following research questions have been formulated:

  • Based on overview studies and meta-analyzes, what is known about the most important risk factors, reinforcing factors and protective factors about individual criminal behaviour perpetration?
  • How can these factors be divided into different domains (categories such as individual and family) and age stages (such as children, young people and young adults)?
  • Based on the research literature, can specific factors be distinguished by perpetrating the following specific criminal behaviour types: juvenile delinquency, cybercrime, and involvement in organized crime?
  • How can we interpret the factors found in the light of criminological insights and perspectives?

Afsluitend

Opnieuw een overzicht waarin gesystematiseerde kennis voor beleid en praktijk wordt gepresenteerd. Bij het vormgeven van een effectief criminaliteit(preventief) beleid moet gebruik gemaakt  worden van ’lessen uit de wetenschap’. De basis voor een dergelijk beleid wordt gevormd door betrouwbare en gevalideerde kennis, afkomstig uit bewezen kwalitatief en geredigeerd onderzoek. De 34 synthesestudies die de auteurs hebben gebruikt bij het vervaardigen van bijgesloten ´kennisparel´ van vandaag biedt aanknopingspunten om dergelijk effectief beleid te formuleren en te implementeren. Maak er vooral gebruik van.