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[211] 11 mei 2021: Multiagency programs with police as a partner for reducing radicalisation to violence

Inleiding en context

Goede morgen collega´s het is vandaag dinsdagochtend 11 mei 2021. Vandaag heb ik een leuke klus te doen. Vanaf 16:00 tot 20:00 uur verzorg ik met Paul van Soomeren een zogenaamde virtuele workshop voor een Canadese conferentie over criminaliteitspreventie:  https://www.albertacrimeprevention.com/2021-conference/#conferenceschedule Het is daar in Canada dan negen uur in de ochtend. Ook op deze manier is het relatief eenvoudig om, in dit geval internationaal, kennis met elkaar te delen. Voor de geïnteresseerde lezers, morgen zal ik deze inleidende presentatie verzorgen tijdens deze conferentie: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321937936_The_Dutch_Touch_How_Holland_Managed_to_Cut_Crime_Presentation_for_the_Alberta_Community_Crime_Prevention_Association_Virtual_Conference_12_May_2021

Maar nu naar de ´kennisparel´ van vandaag. Dat is een recent verschenen systematische overzicht waarin een oordeel wordt gegeven over mate van effectiviteit van programma´s om gewelddadige radicalisering te voorkomen. De politie speelt in deze ´multiagency´ programma´s een centrale rol. Eerder verstuurde ik al twee ´kennisparels´ die ook betrekking hebben op het tegengaan of begrijpen van radicalisering:  https://prohic.nl/2020/08/10/10-augustus-2020-a-field-wide-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-putative-risk-and-protective-factors-for-radicalization-outcomes/ en https://prohic.nl/2020/08/17/17-augustus-2020-counter%e2%80%90narratives-for-the-prevention-of-violent-radicalisation-a-systematic-review-of-targeted-interventions/ Wat zijn de effecten van dergelijke samenwerkingsverbanden om gewelddadige radicalisering tegen te gaan? Wat valt daar van te leren binnen de Nederlandse context? Kortom, een nieuwe ´kennisparel´ voor beleid en de operationele praktijk betrokken collega´s bij het fenomeen van radicalisering.

Bron

Mazerolle, Lorraine, Adrian Cherney, Elizabeth Eggins, Lorelei Hine & Angela Higginson (May 2021).  Multiagency programs with police as a partner for reducing radicalisation to violence Multiagency programs with police as a partner for reducing radicalisation to violence. Campbell Systematic Reviews, vol. 17, no. 2, June, pp. 1-88. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cl2.1162

Samenvatting

Police multiagency responses to violent extremism aim to reduce radicalisation to violence by fostering collaboration and partnering with other governmental agencies, private businesses, community organisations, or service providers. Police can play a central role in these partnerships because they are often one of the first points of contact with individuals who have radicalised to extremism. This Campbell systematic review examines the processes and impact of police‐involved multiagency partnerships that aim to address terrorism, violent extremism, or radicalisation to violence. The review summarises evidence from five studies that met the impact review criteria and 26 studies that were qualitatively synthesised to explore the processes of multiagency collaboration.

This review includes studies that evaluated either the processes or impacts of programmes that involve police acting in partnership with at least one other agency and that were aimed at reducing terrorism, violent extremism or radicalisation to violence.

The systematic search identified 7384 potential studies, of which five assessed the effectiveness of police‐involved multiagency interventions. A total of 181 studies examined how the intervention might work (mechanisms), under what context or conditions the intervention operates (moderators), the implementation factors and economic considerations. Of the 181 studies, 26 studies met the threshold for in‐depth qualitative synthesis to more comprehensively understand the mechanisms, moderators, implementation and economic considerations for police‐involved multiagency interventions.

There is not enough evidence to assess whether these programmes work to reduce radicalisation to violence. Only one study assessed the impact of a police‐involved multiagency partnership on radicalisation to violence. This study evaluated the World Organisation for Resource Development Education (WORDE) programme, a Muslim community‐based education and awareness programme involving police in some components. There is a small amount of mixed evidence regarding whether these programmes can work to improve collaborations between agencies. Four studies met the inclusion criteria to assess the impact of a police multiagency partnership on interagency collaboration. The first study examined the impact of agency alignment with a Target Capabilities List (TCL). The evidence from this study showed that greater alignment with the TCL was associated with better working relationships, more intelligence sharing, and more engagement with the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), other law enforcement agencies, and fusion centres.

The second study assessed whether the number of multiagency collaborative partners influenced perceptions of clarity and understanding of the strategies and goals of organisations at three levels. Evidence from this study suggests that a larger number of collaborative partners is associated with better understandings of missions, responsibilities and goals at the state and local/departmental level, but not at the federal level, where more partners is associated with less understanding.

The third and fourth studies both examined the impact of grants from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). One study found a negative direct relationship between the perceptions of the influence of DHS grants, and homeland security preparedness. The final study found that the receipt of DHS funding did not significantly predict whether or not an agency engaged in at least one form of homeland security innovation.

Twenty‐six studies met our threshold for more thorough examination of the processes that facilitate or constrain implementation, as well as providing information about the costs and benefits of the programme. Some themes that emerged include the importance of taking time to build trust and shared goals among partners; not overburdening staff with administrative tasks; targeted and strong privacy provisions in place for intelligence sharing; and access to ongoing support and training for multiagency partners. There is limited and mixed evidence about the processes and impact of police‐involved multiagency programs aimed at reducing radicalisation to violence. Only five initiatives so far have been evaluated for effectiveness, and with low quality methods. A larger number of studies (181) provide insights in the context, functioning and cost effectiveness of police‐involved multiagency initiatives, with 26 higher‐quality studies synthesised in‐depth. Future research should aim to rigorously evaluate the outcomes of such initiatives.

Afsluitend

Bijgesloten systematisch overzicht geeft het beste weer van wat momenteel de beschikbare kennis zegt over de effectiviteit van samenwerkingsverbanden om gewelddadige radicalisering te voorkomen. De resultaten zijn weinig bemoedigend in die zin dat er niet zo heel veel te melden valt over die effectiviteit. Ook dat zijn belangrijke uitkomsten van systematic reviews zoals die uit bijgesloten bijdrage. Opnieuw wordt duidelijk dat de huidige kwaliteit van evaluatiestudies, óók op dit terrein tekort schiet. Dat is ook een belangrijke boodschap voor subsidieverstrekkers, beleidsafdelingen, de wetenschap en de operationele uitvoering die zich met de preventie van gewelddadige radicalisering bezig houden.